Chapter 12 focuses on racial disparities in sentencing in the united states criminal justice system.

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Create 150 word responses for each chapter post below. Must make direct references from the provided reading. Original assignment order is 1092943
Chapter 11 post
Key Takeaways
This chapter discusses police misconduct throughout all departments in the United States. In a broader sense, it defines the three different types of misconduct. The three types of misconduct are corruption, discriminatory policing, and excessive force. Todak and White (2018) combined Fyfe`s model of excessive force with Kappeler, Sluder, and Alpert`s anthropological theory of police deviance to find sociological factors in understanding unnecessary and extralegal misconduct.
Research Findings
Research has shown that several police departments throughout the United States have indulged in some sort of misconduct. Todak and White used The Oakland Police scandal, the Ferguson Police Department, and the NYPD as examples of misconduct. In addition, they use the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 to clarify how they dealt with systematic misconduct.
Changes in Policies
Although this chapter does not specifically address changes that can be made in US criminal justice policies and practices, it does emphasize the role that police misconduct can play in the community and in people`s lives. Additionally, if we can recognize systematic corruption, discriminatory policing, and excessive force within police departments, policymakers can further address implementing new policies to prevent these departments from participating in misconduct.
Chapter 12 post
Key Takeaways
Chapter 12 focuses on racial disparities in sentencing in the United States criminal justice system. The country has made tremendous strides to overcome these disparities over the last 60 years but statistics still show inequalities in the courts. “Black males have the highest likelihood of incarceration and have experienced the most rapid increase in that likelihood since 1974” (Spohn, 2018, l.4994). Many researchers have studied and theorized why there is a disproportionate number of minorities in prison and their longer sentence length. Several of the early studies failed to take into effect the seriousness of the crime and previous criminal history. Later studies directed their attention to numerous factors including race, ethnicity, pre-trial status, prior criminal record, multiple offense categories, and sentence length. These studies indicated there still remains a disparity and the racial discrimination is more subtle and less detectable. This could be attributed to multiple factors to include an implicit bias by a jury member or judge, pre-trial status, and the hiring of an attorney.
Current Practices
Critical Race Theorist believe racism is part of the system. It is in the laws and policies of America. This was extremely blatant when the crime bills of the 1980s and 1990s were passed that led to a mass incarceration of minorities. Mandatory minimum sentencing, the 100 to 1 crack cocaine law, the public housing amendment to the Controlled Substances Act are just a few examples The attribution theorist believes the disparities come through decision made through stereotypes at all level of the criminal justice system. According to Biale, Hinton & Ross (2021) “The Biden Administration has a new opportunity to right the wrongs of history, many of which were exacerbated by the policies President Biden himself introduced and spearheaded through Congress” (p.155). President Biden has taken a step in the right direction by pushing for more police department oversight. According to Biale, Hinton & Ross (2021), President Biden has proposed ending some mandatory minimum sentencing and eliminated the disparities between crack and cocaine.
Changes Warranted
Judicial oversight needs to be implemented. The current system has little to no effect. Judges have immense power with very little consequences for misconduct. Judges are protected at the highest extent but yet there is no call for their qualified immunity to be withdrawn.
References
Biale, N., Hinton, E, & Ross, E. (2021) The discriminatory purpose of the 1994 crime bill. Harvard Law & Policy Review, 16(1), 115-158.
Spohn, C., (2018). Sentencing disparity: A focus on race and ethnicity. In S. H. Decker & K. A. Wright (Eds.), Criminology and public policy: Putting theory to work. essay, Temple University Press. https://read.amazon.com/.

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